Posted in Lightning Component, Lightning Web Component, LWC, Salesforce

Lightning Web Components for AURA Developers Part – I

The best way to compare the Aura Component and Lightning Web Components programming models is to look at code for similar components written in the two models. The goal of this post is to help you to leverage your Aura components skills to accelerate learning about Lightning web components. You learn how the two types of components work well together.

Prerequisites

Before you dive into this post, complete the Lightning Web Components Basics module, which gives you a great introduction to the new programming model.
I am assuming that you’re familiar with the Aura Components programming model, and we won’t explain its features, except in comparison to the Lightning Web Components programming model. If you’re not familiar with Aura components, start with the Aura Components Basics module.

Component Bundles

The component bundle file structure is different for an Aura component and a Lightning web component. Here’s how the files map between the two types of component.

(Source: Trailhead )

Migrate Markup

  • An Aura component contains markup in a .cmp file. The file starts with an <aura:component> tag and can contain HTML and Aura-specific tags.
  • A Lightning web component contains markup in a .html file. The file starts with a <template> tag and can contain HTML and directives for dynamic content.

Attributes Become JavaScript Properties

Migrate attributes from tags in the markup (.cmp) of an Aura component to JavaScript properties in the JavaScript file (.js) of a Lightning web component.

Aura component:

 <aura:attribute name="recordId" type="Id" />
 <aura:attribute name="account" type="Account" />

LWC :

import { LightningElement, api, track } from 'lwc';
export default class AccountSummary extends LightningElement {
    @api recordId;
    @track account;
        ...
}

The recordId and account attributes in the Aura component become the recordId and account JavaScript properties in the Lightning web component.

The two Lightning web component properties have different decorators. The @api and @track decorators both make a property reactive, which means that when the property value changes, the component’s HTML template rerenders.

The @api decorator marks recordId as a public reactive property. A public property is part of the public API for the component, which means that it can be set in Lightning App Builder, or by a parent component that uses the component in its markup.

The @track decorator marks property as a private reactive property, also known as a tracked property. These properties are used to track internal component state and aren’t part of the component’s public API.

Basic Aura Expressions Become HTML Expressions

Migrate basic expressions from markup in an Aura component to expressions in HTML in a Lightning web component. An example of a basic expression is a reference to an attribute in an Aura component.
For example, the AccountPaginator Aura component uses basic expressions to display the values of the page, pages, and total attributes.

<aura:component >
    <aura:attribute name="page" type="integer"/>
    <aura:attribute name="pages" type="integer"/>
    <aura:attribute name="total" type="integer"/>
    
    <div class="centered">{!v.total} Accounts • page {!v.page} of {!v.pages}</div>
</aura:component>

Here’s the equivalent syntax in the HTML file of the accountPaginator Lightning web component.

<template>
    {totalItemCount} items • page {currentPageNumber} of {totalPages}
</template>

The HTML references the totalItemCount property in paginator.js. The {currentPageNumber} and {totalPages} expressions reference getters that process the pageNumber and pageSize properties.

import { LightningElement, api } from 'lwc';
export default class Paginator extends LightningElement {
    /** The current page number. */
    @api pageNumber;
    /** The number of items on a page. */
    @api pageSize;
    /** The total number of items in the list. */
    @api totalItemCount;
    get currentPageNumber() {
        return this.totalItemCount === 0 ? 0 : this.pageNumber;
    }
    get totalPages() {
        return Math.ceil(this.totalItemCount / this.pageSize);
    }
}

Aura Conditionals Become HTML Conditionals

Migrate <aura:if> tags in an Aura component to if:true or if:false directives in a Lightning web component’s HTML file.
Here’s some conditional markup in the AccountDetails Aura component.

<aura:if isTrue="{!v.spinner}">
    <lightning:recordForm recordId="{!v.accountId}"
      objectApiName="Account"
      fields="{!v.accountFields}" columns="2"/>
</aura:if>

Here’s similar HTML in the accountDeatils Lightning web component.

<template if:true={spinner}>
    <lightning-record-form object-api-name="Account" 
      record-id={accountId} fields={accountFields} 
      columns="2">
    </lightning-record-form>
</template>

The HTML file of a Lightning web component starts with the standard HTML <template> tag, and it can also contain other <template> tags in its body. In this example, the content in the <template> tag conditionally renders depending on the result of the if:true directive.

Aura Iterations Become HTML Iterations

Migrate <aura:iteration> tags in an Aura component to for:each directives in a Lightning web component’s HTML file.
Here’s the Aura syntax in Sample.cmp.

<aura:iteration items="{!v.items}" itemVar="item">
    {!item}
</aura:iteration>

Here’s similar HTML in the sample Lightning web component.

<template for:each={items} for:item='item'>
    <p key={item.id}>{item}</p>
</template>

Stay tuned for next blog post for Lightning Web Components for AURA Developers Part- II.

References:

Lightning Web Components for Aura Developers

Working with Aura and Lightning Web Components: Interoperability and Migration

Author:

Hi! I am Pritam Shekhawat, Salesforce Lightning Champion. I am working as a Salesforce Lightning Practice Lead at Dazeworks and I am a leader of Noida Salesforce Admin group. Most important thing which I like about Salesforce is giving back. There aren’t enough words in the dictionary to describe the significance of giving back.

3 thoughts on “Lightning Web Components for AURA Developers Part – I

  1. Hi Pritam,
    I have started learning LWC before 2 days ago, your Lightning Web Components for AURA Developers Part – I is made an easy comparison between Lightning Component and LWC
    will you please make Lightning Web Components for AURA Developers Part – II as soon as possible.
    Thank you !

    Liked by 1 person

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